In this step you define the entry screens for sales and
profitability planning. These definitions are referred to as
"planning layouts" and represent structures of rows and
Each planning layout is valid for one operating concern. If you
are using the alternative period type in your operating concern,
you need to decide whether you want to use the layout for weeks or
for periods first thing when you create the
Characteristics and value fields
Every field on the screen belongs to a row and a column of the
planning layout. The content of the field depends on the
characteristics and value fields used to define the corresponding
row and column.
One characteristic you can use is the plan/actual indicator.
This makes it possible to display actual values in planning for
informational purposes. If you use the plan/actual indicator, you
need to specify a value for it in each column. In "actual" columns,
you cannot choose the characteristic "Version", whereas in "plan"
columns you are required to do so.
By specifying characteristic values, you determine which data is
selected and planned.
When specifying characteristic values, you can choose from the
enter fixed characteristic values
You can enter fixed characteristic
values for each element. The system uses these values as selection
criteria for the structure of the planning screen.
enter variales for the characteristic values
You can also enter local variables
for the characteristics. These let you use your planning layout for
more profitability segments. If you use variables, you can specify
fixed values when you want to enter plan data.
To enter a local variable for
a characteristic value, press the pushbutton "Variable
on/off" instead making an entry in the field. The system
automatically adapts the size of the field and displays a checkbox
to indicate that a variable is being used.
Local variables are valid only in the
planning layout in which you define them. You can use the same name
as many times as you wish in the layout. For example, $1 for the
field "Version" is different from the variable $1 for the field
"Division". It is also possible to use the same variable more than
once in a planning layout (for example, $1 for the characteristic
"Version" in both of the first two columns).
Text variables can
be used anywhere where you would normally enter texts. To use a
text variable, you need to enter "&$" followed by the name of
The function "Extras -> Variable
-> Maintain text variable" lets you assign the variable to a
characteristic. When you enter planning, the system automatically
finds a text depending on the value selected for that
characteristic. (You cannot replace text variables manually.)
If you use variables for
characteristic values in the planning layout, you need to enter the
values when you plan. If you use the variables in the header,
however, you can indicate these as "optional", in which case they
can also be left blank in planning.
For variables which refer to numerical fields, you can also use
addition and subtraction. The variable is extended by a "+" or "-"
and a number with up to two characters.
Column 1 Column 2
Period from (var. A) Period from (var. A+12)
Period to(var. A+11) Period to (var. A+24)
The variables in column 1 could be replace with 01/96 and 12/96,
those in column 2 with 01/97 and 12/97.
Except for a few minor differences, you define planning layouts
the same way you define forms for the information system.
A planning layout consists of the following parts:
You define the header by choosing
"Edit -> Gen. data selection" from the menu or by
double-clicking on the word "Planning layout". The general data
selection determines which characteristics and characteristic
values appear where in the header.
Lead columns and value columns
Here you choose the characteristics,
characteristic values and value fields you want to plan.
Define the header
In the general data selection, you specify the characteristics
and characteristic values that you want to apply to all the rows
and columns of the layout. For example, you should enter a version
here if you want the entire layout to be for that version. The
general data selection simplifies the layout and makes it easier to
avoid errors when defining it.
Once you have specified a value for a characteristic in the
header, that characteristic is no longer offered for selection in
the rows and columns.
Under "Edit -> Gen. data selection -> Display/change" you
can select as many characteristics as you like for the header of
the planning layout. All these characteristics apply for all the
rows and columns of the layout.
Under "Edit -> Gen. data selection -> Header layout..."
you can sort the characteristics as you would like them to appear
in the header. Note that the system can only display up to nine
characteristics in the header.
Define lead columns
There are two ways you can define lead columns:
1. Define one or more lead columns
via the column header
You define the first lead column by
double-clicking on the column header. You can then add new lead
columns via the menu option "Edit -> Columns -> New lead
column". Note that the new lead column is always inserted
in front of the existing lead columns! If you
define lead columns this way, you can only choose one
characteristic for each lead column.
When you choose the lead column
("Define element"), the system proposes all the characteristics
which have not been used yet.
For example, if you choose the
characteristic "Customer" in the first column and "Product group"
in the second, the system will display those combinations of
customer/product group for which plan data exists.
2. Define one lead column via the
If you choose to define the lead
column this way, you need to define each row individually. You can
specify characteristics, a value field or a formula for each row.
The procedure is the same as when you define value columns.
Remember that you determined whether the value fields go in the
rows or the columns of the planning layout when you defined the
first row or column. You cannot change this decision later.
Define value columns
There are three ways to define a value column:
1. Define a normal column using
characteristics or value fields
You define the first value column by
double-clicking on that column's header. You can define additional
columns in the free space following the first column by
double-clicking in that space. After choosing the desired column,
specify the desired characteristics and characteristic
Intervals of characteristic values in
one row (for example, products A through H) are not allowed. If
necessary, enter "#" for "not assigned".
It is important that you choose the
same characteristics for every column, with the exception of the
version, if you are using different plan/actual indicators. (The
version must be specified in plan columns, and cannot be specified
in actual columns.)
2. Define an attribute column
You can enter the following
The distribution key determines how
cumulative values are distributed to the individual periods. This
makes it possible to represent seasonal trends across
If no distribution key is entered,
the system distributes proportionately according to the existing
data, or evenly if no data exists yet.
This attribute lets you assign a
currency or quantity unit to a value field.
If you choose the attribute "Action",
you can enter delta (= changed) values to help you solve
calculations. For example, say you want to add USD 15,000 to the
existing plan value of USD 40,000. Here you would enter "+" in the
field "Action" and "15000" in the value column.
long text indicator
If this indicator is set, it means
that a long text exists for the profitability segment in that
This attribute lets you display all
characteristics, even those not used in the planning layout.
Again it is important that the same
characteristics are chosen for every column. The only exception to
this are characteristics of time, which cannot be chosen for the
attributes "Distribution key", "Action" and "Unit". For the
attributes "Long text indicator" and "Characteristic", neither
characteristics of time nor value fields can be chosen.
The attributes "Distribution key",
"Unit" and "Action" are always linked directly to one data cell.
There are two ways you can define these attributes:
You can assign the attributes
directly to a value column via the menu path "Edit -> Columns
-> Additional fields". If you later want to changethe
characteristic value in the assigned value column, the system can
automatically change the attribute column accordingly, if you
If you define the attribute by
double-clicking in the space next to the existing value column, the
system does not create a reference. In this case the system
requires you to enter the characteristics and values again. If you
choose the attribute "Unit", this field will contain either the
quantity unit or the entry currency, depending on the corresponding
value field. For more information about units and foreign
currencies, see the CO-PA online manual. a fiscal year.
3. Define a formula column
To define a formula column -- a value
column for which the values are calculated using a formula --
proceed as follows:
Double-click on the free space after
a value column and choose the element type "Formula". In the next
dialog box, you can define a formula using the value columns you
have already defined.
Using the menu option "Formatting
-> Ready for input y/n", you can define rows or columns of your
layout as mere display rows or columns, in which no manual entry
can be made. This makes sense if you want the system to display
certain data, such as a different plan version than the one being
planned, for purely informational purposes.
Value column 1: (ready for input)
Plan price (Revenue/quantity)
Value column 2: (calculated) Plan revenue
If you want to plan the price
directly, you need to activate this field for input using the
function "Formatting -> Ready for input y/n". The price will not
be stored in the database. Therefore you need to calculate a
database field from the price. In the above example, that field is
the revenue. Consequently, the field "Revenue" is locked for manual
entry and defined by the inverse formula "quantity * price". For
another example of an inverse formula, see the standard planning
layout 0-SAP05. See also the chapter "Online Planning" in the CO-PA
Default settings for decimal places and display factor
When you define the planning layout, you can set the number of
decimal places you want displayed as well as a display factor (e.g.
planning in 1000s) for each column. These settings can be changed
at any time in planning.
Special characteristics of account-based Profitability
In account-based Profitability Analysis, the planning layout is
defined for one controlling area.
Special characteristics of costing-based Profitability
If you choose the characteristic "Profit center", you must
specify a single controlling area (fixed value or variable) in the
General data selection.
The master data for your operating concern must be maintained