Maintain operating concern

In this step you define the operating concerns you are going to use in your system.

Once you have entered the operating concern, press ENTER to activate all the necessary functions depending on the operating concern's status. You can choose the "Status" function to see a list of the Customizing actions that you still need to carry out.

If you want to create a new operating concern, you need to create the "attributes" and the "data structures", then generate the environment:

1. Data structure
The data structure determines the structure of the profitability segment s that you can analyze and how costs and revenues are organized. All information in the data structure definition is valid for all clients . If you use the operating concern in more than one client, you only need to define the data structure once. You then need to set the attributes in each client individually.
When you create the operating concern for the first time, the system displays a dialog box in which you need to specify the type or types of Profitability Analysis you want to use. You can only activate the operating concern for the type or types you select here.
The structure of the operating concern is defined by the characteristics and - in costing-based Profitability Analysis - the value fields:
a) Characteristics
Characteristics are the segments of your organization for which you want to analyze your data in CO-PA.
Several fundamental characteristics are predefined in every operating concern. These are called "fixed characteristics". You can display a list of the fixed characteristics by choosing "Extras -> Fixed fields".
In addition to these predefined fields, you can define up to 50 of your own characteristics in each operating concern. You can select these from a list of additional predefined characteristics, or you can create your own using the Customizing function Maintain characteristics.
b) Value fields
Value fields are the fields in costing-based CO-PA in which the system stores the amounts and quantities. They thus determine the structure of your costs and revenues.
An operating concern can contain up to 120 value fields. The standard system contains a list of predefined value fields (such as "Sales quantity" or "Sales revenue").
If you want to define additional value fields, you can do this using the Customizing function Maintain value fields.
To add fields (characteristics or value fields) to your operating concern, select the desired fields on the "Edit Data Structure" screen (right side of the screen). Then use the function "Choose fields" to transfer these fields to the operating concern. You can switch between characteristics and value fields using the function "Goto -> Characteristics" or the corresponding icon.
Once you have defined your data structures, you can activate them.
When you activate the data structures, the system creates the tables for plan and actual data in the database. After that you can only add new fields to the operating concern. You cannot remove any fields already used in the structures. If you add new fields, note that these do not work retroactively. However, you can fill them for existing plan data using the automatic planning function "Change plan" or the function "Periodic valuation". To fill new characteristics retroactively, you need to use the function "Realignments".
Note
c) The function "Data structures -> Delete database tables" deletes the tables for the operating concern. This means that all the data posted to that operating concern in any client is deleted . Only use this function to delete test data. Note also that references to CO-PA transaction data in the posting assignment rules are not deleted. Consequently, problems may arise when you process these objects in the future. Furthermore, the current number in the number range intervals (for document numbers and profitability segment numbers) are not reset. Obsolete productive data should only be deleted using the archiving functions.
If desired, you can create the tables again immediately. Otherwise they are regenerated when you activate the data structures.
d) If you want to cancel your changes to the data structures, use the "Back", "Exit", or "Cancel" function.
2. Generating the environment
Whenever you activate the data structures, you then need to generate the environment of the operating concern.
3. Attributes

The attributes are client-specific parameters of an operating concern. They have different effects depending on the type of Profitability Analysis you are working in. When you create the attributes, you make the operating concern "known" in that client. If the operating concern does not yet contain any transaction data, you can change the attributes at any time. However, you should not change them in a productive system that already contains transaction data.

a) Currency
If you are using costing-based Profitability Analysis, you can store transaction data in two different currencies.
Actual data is always updated in the operating concern currency. In addition to this, you have the option of storing all data in the currency of the relevant company code. The data is translated to the operating concern currency and company code currency when it is transferred to CO-PA.
Note that storing the data in the company code currency as well doubles your data volume.
In planning, all data is stored in the currency specified for the plan version in which the data is stored.
If you want to store plan or actual data in the company code currency, select the "Company code currency" indicator.
If you change the operating concern currency, the system will interpret existing data incorrectly. You can activate the company code currency at any time. However, this will not affect data that has already been posted. If you deactivate the company code currency, you can no longer use any reports or plan versions that use that currency, even for past periods.
If you are using account-based Profitability Analysis, the system stores all data in the transaction currency, company code currency and controlling area currency. If the company code currency and the controlling area currency are the same, the system stores the object currency for the individual CO object (cost center, order, project, and so on) in place of the company code currency.
The currencies you specify for the operating concern have no significance for account-based CO-PA.
b) Fiscal year variant
The fiscal year variant determines the number of posting periods per fiscal year. Since each controlling area assigned to the operating concern -- and each company code assigned to each of those controlling areas -- can have its own fiscal year variant, the variant you choose for the operating concern must agree with the other areas.
If you want to change the fiscal year variant, you can only do so in a way that the total number of periods increases, for example:
from 12 posting periods + 2 special periods
to 12 posting periods + 4 special periods
If the alternative period type is active for the operating concern (see below), you cannot change the fiscal year variant.
If you are using costing-based Profitability Analysis, the operating concern and the controlling area which is assigned to it must have the same fiscal year variant before you can assess costs from CO-CCA to CO-PA.
If you are using account-based Profitability Analysis, the operating concern and the controlling area must always have the same fiscal year variant.
c) Alternative period type
If you are using costing-based Profitability Analysis, you can use the alternative period type to store your actual or plan data in weeks. Activating the alternative period type multiplies your data volume. This could lead to much slower response times in your information system than if you do not use the alternative period type.
You can also activate the alternative period type at a later point in time. The only disadvantage of this is that the data posted up to that point will not be stored according to the alternative period type. That data remains assigned to the posting period.
If you are using account-based Profitability Analysis, you cannot use the alternative period type.

Standard settings

The standard R/3 System contains the sample operating concern "S001". You can copy this operating concern to create your own operating concern. However, you should not use it productively.

Actions

To define your operating concern, proceed as follows:

1. Enter the name of the operating concern.
2. Enter a text for the operating concern.
3. Specify which type or types of Profitability Analysis you want to use.
4. Add the desired characteristics.
5. Add the desired value fields.
6. Save and activate.
7. Generate the environment.
8. Define attributes in each client in which you want to use the operating concern.

Additional information

1. Generated objects

When you activate the data structures of your operating concern, the system creates the following objects in the ABAP Repository:

Type	 Name				 Description
Structure  CE0xxxx			logical line item structure
Table	CE1xxxx			actual line item table
Table	CE2xxxx			plan line item table
Table	CE3xxxx			segment level
Table	CE4xxxx			segment table
Table	CE4xxxx_KENC		 realignments
Table	CE5xxxx			logical segment level
Structure  CE7xxxx			internal structure for assessment
Structure  CE8xxxx			internal structure for assessment
In these names, "xxxx" stands for the name of the operating concern.
1. Upgrading your system
When you upgrade your system to a later release, or when you import a hot package, the new functions or corrections need to be activated for your existing operating concerns. This is done automatically when you execute the first transaction that uses data from Profitability Analysis. This normally takes a few minutes and is announced by a message at the bottom of the screen you are currently on.
This upgrade includes a number of checks and, where necessary, a correction of inconsistencies. However, the system may encounter situations that it cannot handle automatically. It is therefore recommended that you carry out this upgrade manually by executing a simple function (such as "Environment -> Set operating concern") before you begin working productively again in the new release.

Deleting an operating concern

To delete an operating concern, you need to carry out a number of preparatory steps:

1. Deactivate the operating concern for all the controlling areas that belong to it and in all fiscal years using the function "Activate operating concern".
2. Delete the assignment of controlling areas to your operating concern using the function "Assign operating concern".

You can access the following steps in the function "Operating concer -> Delete".

1. Delete the client-specific Customizing settings.

After completing steps 1 through 3, you can proceed with the following steps:

1. Delete the environment.
2. Delete the data structures.
When you delete the data structures, the system also deletes all the transaction data in that operating concern. This data can no longer be recovered.

If you want to delete characteristics and value fields that are not used in any operating concern, you can do this using the functions "Maintain characteristics" "Maintain value fields".

Notes on transporting

You can transport the settings you made to your productive system using the CO-PA transport tool.

Note that the generated ABAP Repository objects are valid for all clients. Conflicting name in the target system can also lead to problems in other applications. Therefore you should make all Customizing settings in one (source) system. You can then transport these settings to your other (target) systems. This technique helps you avoid inconsistencies.

If you cannot use this technique for some reason, be sure to observe the following:

1. Characteristics and value fields with the same name must have the same text, the same attributes (type, length), the same check table and the same origin table in each system.
2. For characteristics which were defined manually, enter the number for the check table manually as well. Each characteristic must have the same number in all systems. The assignment of the number to the characteristic must be unique.

In order to ensure that Customizing settings are consistent in the target system, the transport tool always transports larger objects, such as reports, key figure schemes, or the operating concern itself. Consequently, some activities are not automatically recorded in transport requests, since that would lead to inconsistencies.

The settings you process in this section are transported together with the operating concern.

On the selection screen of the transport tool, select the object operating concern , and then choose the desired dependent object types.

You can transport the following dependent objects:

The following settings are transported as well:

The system creates a transport request which contains the objects you want to transport.